Cutting Edges: Crisis, Change, and Renewal in Historical Perspective

By Anna Marie Johnson, Assistant Professor of Reformation History

Anna JohnsonEverything is changing for churches. They are losing their members, their vigor, and their respected place in the fabric of society. The laity’s formation in the faith is often superficial. Societal and economic conditions make effective ministry challenging. Old models do not seem sustainable, and the future seems unstable at best.

You might assume I am describing the situation of mainline Protestant churches in the United States, and the description certainly fits. But I wrote that description with a very different context in mind: sixteenth-century Germany. In that place and at that time, the church was facing its own challenges.

The church’s critics were vocal and numerous. Prominent academics questioned the power the church had traditionally held in society, and popular songs and stories portrayed priests as inept and self-interested. Individual Christians were certainly pious, but their piety was often unorthodox and sometimes openly heterodox. Public figures used religion for their political gain, and the church hierarchy was more interested in temporal power than shepherding souls. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire was threatening to overtake central Europe, and famines and inflation made a stable economy nearly impossible.

This was the situation that Christians faced in the sixteenth century, and despite the bleak parallels between then and now, knowing this part of the church’s past gives me hope for the church of the future. Remembering how much the church has been through and the many forms it has taken in its long history can help us be less anxious about our current situation. Anxiety has a way of making us think our circumstances are unique and insurmountable. It is a normal response to change, but it is not a particularly helpful response.

There is an older, romanticized type of history that viewed prominent historical figures as giants who walked among mortals, handing out exquisite pearls of wisdom as they went. Many of these figures were truly great and wise, but that is only part of the picture. It is important to remember that they had anxieties, doubts, and failures as well. In short, they were no more or less capable than we are to meet the church’s current challenges, and the circumstances they faced were at least as difficult as ours.

The Protestant reformers had a particularly difficult task since they had to re-build a church structure from scratch. In their exile from the pope, whether forced or self-imposed, they were separated from the institutions, communities, and resources that were familiar to them. Yet they rose to the challenge and tried to address the issues of their time through many different channels.                       

They committed themselves to studying, discussing, and living by the Bible. They carefully considered their theology and practices to discern what needed to change and what needed to stay. They reformed worship practices to reflect and to teach their theology. They organized poor relief in cities. They told the laity that their baptismal vows were every bit as important as the clergy’s vows. And they used the new medium of the printing press to foster biblical faith, saturating communities with instruction on prayer, the sacraments, ethics, childrearing, suffering, and Christian vocation. Many of those laypeople responded by engaging in theological discussions, teaching their children the Bible and the catechisms, urging their rulers to be just, and serving their neighbors and communities.

The results of the Reformation were not all positive, but the movement did create churches that were vibrant enough to nurture the faith of their members and to impact their societies. This is just one example of a challenge the church has met during its long history. In many different contexts, the Holy Spirit has formed churches that engage and respond to society in faithful service. Taking the long view of church history, the current situation is one challenge the church has faced among many. In that perspective, our crisis might seem less threatening. When we are less anxious about the future of “our” churches, we are more open to the Holy Spirit’s call to God’s churches in our time and our place.

Cutting Edges

Cutting Edges is an ongoing series published in AWARE, Garrett-Evangelical's quarterly magazine. In Cutting Edges, Garrett-Evangelical faculty share their latest research and expertise in their field of study. From issues of the undocumented worker in the United States to current trends and models in worship, each of these articles touch on current issues facing the Church and our world. To read the articles in their entirety and comment, click the "Read More" links below.


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Dr. Timothy Eberhart
Visiting Professor of Moral and Public Theology and Director of Course of Study

Remember You are Dust, and to Dust You Shall Return
Published February 2013

With sobering words and ashen smudges on our foreheads, Christians worldwide were ushered this month into the Lenten season.  In an age marked by increasingly dire signs that the earth itself is suffering from multiple afflictions, even unto death, we are challenged this Lent to consider the meaning of Jesus’ passion and resurrection for a stricken planet.   

Remember that to dust you shall return.  The wages of human sin is death (Rom. 6:23), as Paul declares, and not only our own degeneration, but the unnatural decay of the whole groaning creation (8:21-22).  Today, this unwelcome message comes to us from the scientific community, as we hear reports almost daily that the earth and every form of life it sustains is in grave peril and that the great ecological crises of our time are “anthropogenic” (i.e. caused by human activity)...







Dr. Pam Holliman
Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology and Pastoral Psychotherapy

Listening Empathically
Published January 2012

Several years ago at a meeting with a Board of Ordained Ministry, a small group was interviewing a candidate for ordination who had recently graduated from seminary. One member asked the young man what he had learned in his field education experience that most surprised him. He answered, “I learned that ministry is primarily about relationships.” In a similar vein I have heard graduates return to Garrett-Evangelical and indicate they wished they had taken more pastoral care or Christian education courses. They appreciate the depth of the work they did in theology, Bible, and Church history as it grounds and enlivens their day to day ministry. At the same time many graduates have come to a greater appreciation of relationships with people as the heart of ministry...





Dr. Stephen Ray
Neal F. and Ila A. Fisher Professor of Systematic Theology

Be Ye Not Conformed
Published October 2011

These are difficult and troubling times in which we live. The lines between faith and public life are bending in ways that help neither. Perhaps it is time to remind ourselves, as each generation must, of both our calling and our vocation in the world. I find that Jeremiah and Paul help me to think through what vocation means in the world...






Dr. Barry Bryant
Associate Professor of United Methodist and Wesleyan Studies

A Theology of Empty Shirts or Justice?
Published July 2011

Where were you at 6:00 p.m. on May 21, 2011? What were you thinking? That was the hour that Harold Camping, a radio preacher in California, predicted the rapture as a prelude to the return of Jesus, the battle of Armageddon, and the end of the world. While it provided many with a bonanza of easy material used in derision of Christianity, other Christians tried to distance themselves from an absurd theological caricature of what we regularly affirm through the Apostles’ Creed, “...and he will come again to judge the living and the dead.” Harold Camping reminds us that without serious and constant theological reflection we can lose sight of creedal significance, relevance, and meaning...






Dr. E. Byron Anderson
Ernest and Bernice Styberg Professor of Worship and Director, Nellie B. Ebersole Program in Music Ministry

Worship - Mirrors and Models
Published April 2011

Contemporary discussions of the function of worship in the life of the church tend to focus on the ways in which worship serves as a means to reach out to the unchurched, as a tool for evangelism, as the central practice for church growth, and as a set of products shaped by consumer desires. (The recent Call to Action report in The United Methodist Church provides only one recent example of these tendencies.) But what if we began to think about worship from a different perspective? What if we began to think of worship as a kind of mirror and model for the Christian community? ...






Dr. Nancy Bedford
Georgia Harkness Professor of Applied Theology

Theology of the Undocumented Worker
Published January 2011

Each fall my family and I put the community garden plot we tend in Evanston to rest for the winter under its coverlet of straw; each spring we look forward to planting season and to the wonderful vegetables of the Midwestern summer. Our adventures in gardening are pleasurable, yet ultimately optional, as our food supply does not depend on their success. It is different for the migrant farm workers in the United States who care for the many crops, especially fruits and vegetables, that continue to be human-labor intensive. Such workers live precariously, anonymously, often exposed to toxic chemicals, moving from place to place. Without their backbreaking work, our food supply would be decimated...



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